Equipements – Facilities
The IEMN clean room (ISO 6 class) has a total area of 1600 m2+260m² dedicated to back-end. The technological facilities are as follows and you can download our technical leaflet here. PLAQUETTE_CMNF
- Materials and advanced characterization
Molecular Beam Epitaxy: The IEMN MBE facility consists of 3 reactors. Two of them are dedicated to III-V semiconductor heterostructure growth and are connected together and to an XPS analysis chamber by means of UHV transfer modules. The third system is devoted to graphene and BN epitaxy. Besides growth, samples can be characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Triple X-ray diffraction, Hall effect, μ-photoluminescence and µ-Raman to assess their morphological, structural, electrical and optical properties.
Two engineers are currently running the III-V epitaxial growth and the associated characterization tools, together with the XPS measurements.
The III-V MBE chambers are pumped down by a combination of ionic and cryo pumps and cooled down by a LN2 Vacuum Barrier system. Both of them are fitted with Staib RHEED equipments, Hiden mass spectrometers and kSA BandiT set-ups for temperature measurement by optical absorption edge spectroscopy. The III-V Solid Source MBE is a Riber Compact 21 chamber equipped with valve cracker sources for As, P and Sb group-V elements and standard effusion cells for Ga, Al and In group-III elements. A Hydrogen plasma cell is also installed. N-type doping can be achieved by silicon or tellurium (via a GaTe source) whereas p-type doping is done by carbon using a CBr4 injector. The III-V Gas Source MBE is a Riber 32 one using arsine and phosphine cracked in a high temperature injector as As and P sources whereas Sb is provided via a valve cracker cell. Standard effusion cells are used for Ga, Al and In group-III elements, silicon for n-type doping, Be and C (via a CBr4 injector) for p-type doping.
Ion implantion: One of the important steps for the fabrication of the electronic devices is the ion implantation. The ion implantation is widely used for the manufacturing of the p-n junction, doping and insulation in the semiconductor devices. The ion implanter is the common equipment used by many IEMN research team. EATON-AXCELIS GA 3204 is a medium current reactor. The possibility to use the materials in its different states (gases, salts, metals and liquids) makes this equipment the unique tool in France because of its capability to implant very large range of the chemical species. In the standard mode, it is possible to implant the chemical species from 20kEv to 200 kEv. Recently, the implanter was equipped with deceleration module that makes possible the low energy implantation from 3kEv to 20kEV. One can perform the implantation at different angles to the substrate for 3D structures and with rotated samples and in the wide temperature range, from -10°C to 300°C. The implantation is often followed with the rapid thermal annealing to recover the crystal damage. Two RTA plates are using: Jipelec JetStar 100S and Anealsys One with the max temperature up to 1200°C. The implantation and the annealing are realized by a technician and SRIM simulation by an engineer. No possible “free” using for this tool.
- Lithography resource
E-beam writer: 2 Raith EBPG5000Plus
Multi-users: ~20 users (People who have followed a training done by staff member can use the equipment)
The staff is composed of 3 engineers.
EBPG5000Plus is an Electron Beam Lithography tool. It is capable of writing features smaller than 10nm and placing
structures on a substrate with an accuracy of less than 20nm.
Some of the key specifications are outlined in the following:
- 20, 50 and 100keV Thermal Field Emission Gun
- High Resolution Gaussian Beam System
- 50MHz Intelligent Pattern Generator
- 1.25nm minimum pixel size
- Robust Direct Write Mark Detection & Alignment Software
- 10 positions load lock for batch processing of multiple substrates
- Holders for 50mm, 75mm, 100mm wafers, 4 and 5” masks and smaller piece parts
- Housed in a custom clean-room which maintains a temperature of 21°C ± 0.1°C
- Overlay and stitching better than 30nm
The data preparation software includes proximity effect correction
Mask aligners: MA6/BA6 Suss MicroTec UV240-UV 400 nm
Multi-users: 100 users and 1 engineer in charge of the equipment and processes.
MA6 is a 1x mask aligner. It is designed for research and development. Simple contact to controlled gap proximity
printing using UV light illumination of photosensitive resist can be easily performed.
Some of the key specifications are outlined in the following:
- Wafer size: 1⁄4 and 1⁄2 of 2 inch, 2, 3, 4 inch and Mask size: quartz 4”*4” and 5”*5”.
- Exposure mode: Flood Exposure, proximity, soft contact, hard contact and vacuum contact.
- Top side alignment (TSA) down to 0,5μm
- Bottom side alignment (BSA) down to 1μm.
- Resolution with vacuum contact mode down to 800nm with optical resist (Microchemicals AZnLOF2020).
- Objectives (Top Side) 5x, 10x, 20x, 50x
- Objectives (Back side) normal, zoom 2x
- Alignment using fine adjustment screws (accuracy about 0.35μm)
- XY table movements: X =± 10 mm Y = ± 5 mm Θ = ± 5°
- Manual substrate handling up to 150mm diameter.
- Hg light source with deep UV cutoff (i-line, g-line, 350-440nm), broad band light power intensity 10mW/cm2
Substrate bonder: SB6e Suss MicroTec
Vacuum anodic bonder
Multi-users: 10 users and 1 engineer in charge of the equipment and processes
The KS Bonder is a semi-automatic, computer-controlled, stand-alone substrate bonder equipped with a
vacuum/pressure chamber and a loading arm. The machine processes aligned and unaligned wafers, substrates and
chips. The alignment accuracy of this tool is listed as being 3 μm (3 σ ).
All bonding pair alignment is done on the BA6 tool , the substrate stacks are mechanically clamped using the transport
fixture, and then transported and bonded in the SB6 chamber.
For aligned and unaligned wafers using thermo-compression, anodic, fusion, adhesive or any related bond technology.
- Wafer size: pieces smaller than 2-inch, 2-inch up to 4-inch.
- Aligned bonding: Down to 3 μm depending on process conditions.
- Two ceramic heaters, Temperature up to 550°C
- The pressure inside the chamber is controlled via pumps: roughing, turbo pumps and valves.
- Max vacuum: 5e-5mbar in 5 minutes
- Bond Voltage; -500V to -600V for bond initiation and -800V to -1200V for anodic bonding.
- Maximum Peak Current: 15 mA.
- Tool Pressure up to 18 KN for 6-inch
- Motorized z-axis, pneumatic and simultaneous spacers and clamps movements
- VLSI materials: Silicon, PolySilicon, Silicon Nitride, Silicon Oxide
- Photo-resist (temperature no higher than 150oC or 200°C for E-Beam resist)
- Metals: Gold, Indium
- Glass: borofloat, Pyrex or any borosilicate glass with thermal characteristics matched to silicon
The following standard processes are available:
- Silicon direct bonding (SDB)
- Anodic bonding of silicon to pyrex wafers
- Eutectic bonding
- High temperature fusion bonding of silicon wafers
Direct Laser writing system: KLOE Dilase 650
Multi-users: 5 users and 3 engineers in charge of the equipment and processes.
Dilase 650 is a high resolution direct laser lithography system. It allows the writing on any type of substrate (photomasks, semiconductors, glass, polymers, crystals, flexible films…) in all the optical resist sensitive to 375nm. It can be used for fast patterning and mask prototyping with the possibility to write on very thick resist (~200-300µm).
Some of the key specifications are outlined in the following:
- Wafer size: 1” to 4” wafer
- Wafer type: photomasks, semiconductors, glass, polymers, crystals, flexible films…
- Laser wavelength: 375 nm
- Laser power: 70mW
- Laser spot size: 1 and 10µm
- Stage travel resolution: 100nm
- Etching resource
Dielectric etching: The IEMN has a recognized expertise in the fabrication of nanoscale electronics and optoelectronics devices based on very large range of semiconductor materials. One important step in the fabrication of electronic devices is the dry etch using the plasma reaction. During the last years IEMN initiated new projects devoted on the development of Magnetic-Random-Access-Memory (MRAM) devices based on ferromagnetic materials, piezo/ferroelectric actuators and biosensors using for substrates such materials as glass and quartz. For this purpose, IEMN purchased a new ICP- RIE reactor from SENTETCH, SI500, dedicated to the etch of “hard” materials: ferromagnetic stacks, PZT, Pyrex, quartz and BCB but also lithium-based material. The reactor is equipped with 13 gas lines, including HBr, Cl, and F-based chemistry, in order to be able to cover very large spectrum of materials. The ICP Power is 1200W and RIE power is 600W. The reactor is able to process 4-inch substrates. This machine was installed in November 2012 and it is not available in “free access”, it is managed by 1 engineer.
Deep silicon etching: The very important part of R&D IEMN activity consists in the design and fabrication of Si based circuits and devices, especially, the fabrication of MEMS and NEMS and microfluidics devices. The fabrication of these kinds of devices involves the use of Deep Reactive Ion Etch (DRIE) in order to be able to etch anisotropicaly more than 100 μm of Si. For this purpose, a Bosch process is used. This procedure consists in repetition of etch/passivation short cycles that allows an anisotropic etch for very high depth (up to 500 μm). IEMN has two DRIE reactors for this purpose. At the beginning of 2005, IEMN purchased an ICP reactor from SPTS (STS Multiplex ICP ASE HRM Source). The shortest etch time is 1.5 sec allowing to obtain 100 – 300 nm scallops. The machine is equipped with 3000 W coil and 600 W platen generators. At the end of 2014, with growing of Si etching activity, IEMN purchased the second DRIE reactor from OXFORD Instrument (PlasmaPro Estrelas10). This reactor is equipped with ultra-fast mass flow units that allows to work with sub-sec steps (min 300 ms) leading to very low scalloping (<25 nm) and allowing to increase the Aspect Ratio. On the other hand, the new reactor is equipped with LN2 cooling electrode that gives possibility to do cryogenic silicon etching (in the temperature range between -70°C and -150°C). This method allows to obtain very smooth walls and also to change their angle that is very interesting for optoelectronic and PV devices. Both reactors are equipped with pulsed low frequency (350 – 380 kHz) units used for SOI etching in order to avoid the “notching” effect near the oxide. The machines are also used for Teflon deposition. Both ICP can be used for 3 or 4” substrates. The reactors are in a “free use”, the IEMN students and the staff can use them after training. These machines are managed by 1 engineer.
RIBE (Reactive Ion Beam Etching): In 2016, IEMN purchased Reactive Ion Beam Etching reactor, called IonSys 500 from Meyer Burger. The etching is done by Ar ion beam at high energy, until 1 keV, generated by µ-wave 220 mm of diameter, that give a possibility to obtain an excellent uniformity on 6-inch wafers. This reactor is widely used for metal etching (Au, Ag, Ni …). As IEMN currently develops a new and a very promising activity on the realization of ferromagnetic devices based on FeCo, TbCo, MgO super lattice and others alloys, the RIBE is the very suitable method for the etching of this kind of materials. On the other hand, the RIBE technique is very appropriated technique for shallow etching (<100nm), that widely used for III-V HBT fabrication. This reactor is equipped with SIMS analyser in order to insure the good control of etching and has 5 additional neutral and reactive gas lines in order to increase the selectivity for some materials. Starting from the end of 2017 the reactor is open for a “free use”, the IEMN students and the staff can use it after training. The machine is managed by 1 engineer.
III/V etch (Oxford etching): The III-V materials take an important place in the IEMN research projects. The development concerns such applications as optoelectronics for InP-based waveguide and GaN-based solar cells, and microelectronics for example antimonides based HEMT and HBT structures. Dual Chamber ICP-RIE OXFORD PlasmalabSystem 100 was purchased for these materials etch at 2005. One of the chamber is using only for InP etch mainly with CH4/H2 chemistry. This chamber is equipped with high temperature electrode that can be heated up to 400°C. The second chamber is for wide material region: many III-V alloys, Si (nanowires etch), TiN etc. The max ICP power is 3 kW and RIE power up to 600 W for both chambers. The load lock and clamps are adapted for 3-inch substrates. The Chlorine and Fluorine chemistries can be used in this reactor. The machine is managed by 2 engineers and it is in a “free use “after training.
Dry chemical etching: IEMN etching facilities are equipped also with 2 dry chemical reactors: XeF2 (difluoride Xenon) from Xactix in 2004 and HF-vapor from SPTS in 2014. The first one insures very selective isotropic etching of Si to Silicon Oxide or polymers and the last one allows SiO2 etching with very high selectivity to Silicon. These 2 chemical chambers and 2 DRIE reactors allow to IEMN to have a complete chain for MEMS fabrication. Each chamber is managed by 1 engineer. Both reactors are in the “free use” after the training.
- Deposition resource
Evaporation resistive (Joule): PLASSYS BESTEK MEB 450 SL.
Multi users. The source material is placed in a crucible equipped with a heating system. The substrate is placed in front of the crucible (or source of evaporation) in a vacuum chamber. The crucible is heated until the source material in it evaporates. evaporated particles travel directly to the deposition substrate to form the thin coating.
- Capacity: 1 substrate holder 3” with planetary rotation
- Cryogenic pump
- 3 Crucibles heaters: In, Au, Cr.
Electron BEAM evaporation: 2 PLASSYS BESTEK MEB 550S and 1 PLASSYS BESTEK MEB 550SL.
Restricted access managed by 1 technician for MEB 550S and Multi-users for MEB550SL.
The operating principle is the same as above only the system of heating the material differs. It is obtained by electron bombardment from a tungsten filament heated to a temperature of 2800 °C (the cathode) and accelerated by an electrode positively polarized at several thousand volts (the anode). In order to avoid electric arcs, the filament is placed outside the vapor flow and the beam of electrons is curved by a magnetic field.
- Load lock
- substrate treatment with beam ion source
- Tilttable substrate holder with planetary rotation
- Cryogenic pump
- Capacity: 4 substrates holder 4” for MEB 550 S system and a single wafer 4″ holder for MEB 550SL
- 8 crucibles15cc: Au, Ti, Ge, Al, Pt, Ni, Mo, Cr, Pd, Ag …
- Realization of ohmic and Schottky contacts GaN HEMTs: Ti/Al/Ni/Au – Ti/Pt/Au – Mo/Au
- Ohmic and Schottky contact pseudomorphic and metamorphic HEMTs: Ni/Ge/Au/Ti/Au – Ti/Pt/Au – Pt/Ti/Pt/Au
Sputtering Systems: 2 ALLIANCE CONCEPT DP 650
Multi Users. Sputtering is a process whereby atoms are ejected from a solid target material by a bombardment of the target by energetic particles. The source material to be deposited is introduced into the vacuum chamber with a shape of a plate. The plate is clamped to a cooled electrode (the target or cathode). A second electrode (the anode) is placed at a distance of a few cm and is used as the substrate holder. The residual pressure in the vacuum chamber is between 10-2 and 1 torr to set up the electric field between the two electrodes that causes the residual gas to be ionized. The positive ions are then attracted by the target. The discharge gas is Argon.
- DP 650 n°24: 4 DC and RF magnetron sources from cathodes 6”
- DP 650 n°34: 6 DC and RF magnetron sources from cathodes 4”
- Load lock
- Capacity: 1 substrate holder 4”
- Substrate holder configuration: 1 water cooling and 1 high temperature heating (800°c).
- Cryogenic pump
- Dynamic, sweeping and stationary deposition modes. Applications : single or multi-layers processes
- reactive sputtering, co-sputtering. Layer deposition:
- Target 6”: Au, Al, Ti , Cr
- Target 4”: W, WTi, TiN, TiNi, Cu, Ni, Ta, TaN …
Multi users. Ovens are used to improve electrical properties of the metal deposited.
The Tubular annealing carbolite has a range of temperature from 100°C to 1000°C N2 and N2/H2 (5%) with gas process for 3” sample. The rapid wafer heating system Jipelec jetfirst 100 has a range of temperature from 100°C to 1000°C N2 and N2/H2 (5%) with gas process for 4” sample.
Multi-Chamber sputtering tool: ALLIANCE CONCEPT CT 200
Multi users. We have acquired a magnetron sputtering tool to develop a new generation of microthermogenerator. Material obtained are based on nanostuctured thermoelectric (TE) material, dedicated to applications in the field of autonomous objects fed with ambient energy as temperature gradients. The developed TE microsource will be processed using original proprietary microtechnology incorporating a thermopile build up with a series of semiconductor/metal thermocouples, deposited on specific substrates. In order to improve the TE conversion efficiency, new generation of thermopiles must incorporate novel thermoelectric materials with better physical properties than the classical polySilicon that we started to use: this can be obtained in materials containing nanostructuration or/and displaying low-dimensionality. This equipment is capable of engineer superlattices (SL) of compound semiconductors with thin period (few nm) and a large number of alternations (typically >100). TE compound based on BxC with different stoechiometries will be obtained. Such structures like B4C/B9C, that was once recently reported to generate the highest TE figure of merit at room temperature (ZT>3, HiZ© which is more promising than SiGe/Si.
14 targets, 3 chambers sputtering cluster:
- Chamber #1 : 6 x 2’’ magnetron targets arranged in 2 groups of 3 for confocal sputtering
Powered with 2 DC-pulse source and 2-RF sources
Cold or heated (400°C) substrate holder with rotation for uniformity over 4inch substrate
Deposited materials : dedicated to magnetic multilayers and simple metals. Reactive sputtering of nitrides also allowed.
- Chamber #2 : 4x 4’’ (3’’ also available) targets in planar mode
Powered by 1 DC and 1 RF power source.
Cold or Heated(800°C) substrate holder
Deposited materials : dedicated to various ‘exotic’ alloys ranging from AlN, ZnO, MgO, ITO, to battery (LiPON) and photovoltaic materials (CIGS, CuS, ZnS…)
- Chamber #3 : 3x 2’’ magnetron targets in confocal mode + 1x 4’’ magnetron target in planar mode.
Powered with 1 DC pulse, 1 DC and 1 RF source
Heated (400°C) substrate holder with rotation for uniformity over 4inch substrate
Turbo-molecular pumping. Deposited materials: dedicated to thermoelectric materials (Boron Carbides). Dynamic, sweeping and stationary deposition modes. Load lock, Fully automated with simultaneous multi-process capability.
Applications: single or multi-layers processes, reactive sputtering, co-sputtering.
Realization of complex structures without vacuum break and cross-contamination of chambers.
InkJet deposition: CeraPrinter
In 2012 IEMN purchased the CeraPrinter X-series inkjet deposition tool from Ceradrop. This equipment is the most accurate inkjet printer available on the market. It is dedicated to develop our activity in printed electronic and bio- MEMS technologies. The printer is equipped with two multi-nozzles print heads (128 nozzles) and a single-nozzle jet micro-dispenser mounted on the print head carrier. This enables the jetting of three various material during a single fabrication process with a motion accuracy of +/- 1,5 μm. A wide range of inks could be printed. For example, the single-nozzle print head is used for the located deposit of biopolymers and enzymes (enzyme detection, bio-MEMS field). The two multi-nozzles print heads are used for both printing conductive and dielectric inks to allow the creation of transmission lines or microelectronic devices. The users of the Ceraprinter also take advantage from its embedded post-process and software package making possible the designing of patterns, their printing and even their post-process analysis. Indeed, the device has embedded reflectometer for thickness measurement, automated jetting analysis software providing a report on ejection reliability and a multi-layer printing mode giving access to the 3D printing.
Restricted equipement managed by 1 engineer. In 2011, IEMN has acquired an automatic electrochemical deposition system. This equipment is composed of 3 tanks: one is dedicated to gold plating; the second to copper plating and the last is used for rinsing. Enhanced liquid flow and electrical field control ensure a homogenous deposition at highest plating rates. Process can be performed on either pieces of wafer, or full wafer up to 4 inches. Controlling the applied current intensity monitors the growth rate. The equipment has the ability to operate both in pulsed and direct current mode (2 A DC current for gold deposition and 5 A AC pulsed current for copper deposition). The thickness could be from one to a hundred microns. Among various applications concerning semiconductor and microsystem technologies, one can mention:
- Current redistribution layers for opto- and microelectronics
- Solder, Cu and Au bumps for wafer level packaging (WLP)
- Functional metallic layers for micro – electro – mechanical systems (MEMS)
- Micro forming and molding for microsystems
Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition: Oxford Instrument.
The PECVD reactor is the one of the widest used equipment at IEMN. This reactor is used for deposition of thin SiN, SiO2 and SiOxNy layers. Reactor is equipped with standard 13.56 MHz unit and low frequency unit, with the frequency varying from 50 to 400 kHz for low stress layers depositions. The properties of the deposited layers can also be controlled by the electrode temperature varying from 20°C to 400°C and the power, that max value is 600W. The process gases are: SiH4, NH3, N2O and He. The deposition is realized either by an engineer or by the user after training.
Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition: Tempress furnaces
Restricted access: managed by 1 engineer. APCVD (Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition) and LPCVD (Low Pressure) refer to chemical and thermal processes used to deposit high purity thin layers with a good uniformity.
These layers are made by reaction and decomposition of gas-phase precursor(s) on surface of the substrate (wafer) due to the high temperature inside the furnace. Note that deposition occurs on both sides of the wafer.
2 tubes are available for thermal oxidations of silicon wafers up to 1100°C with O2 gas (dry oxidation) or H2O vapor (wet oxidation) at atmospheric pressure. Thickness goes from 2 nm up to 1.5 μm. Main applications are insulation, passivation and smoothing of side effects after etching
3 dedicated LPCVD tubes with dry pumps to deposit:
- Polycristalline silicon (≤ 600°C) and in-situ phosphorus doped polysilicon (650 to 750°C), thickness up to 2 μm.
- Low Temperature Oxide (SiO2 deposition at 420°C), boro- (BSGLTO), phospho- (PSGLTO) or BoroPhosphoSilicate Glass (BPSGLTO), thickness up to 5 μm.
- low stress (SixNy) or stoichiometric (Si3N4) silicon nitride, 800°C with a thickness up to 1 μm.
Applications are insulation, passivation and p-n junction. For silicon wafers only up to 4 inch diameter or less ; 3 » for LTO
Atomic Layer Deposition:
Beneq TFS200, Picosun, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is an advanced thin film coating method which is used to fabricate ultrathin, highly uniform and conformal material layers for several applications. ALD uses sequential, self-limiting and surface controlled gas phase chemical reactions to achieve control of film growth in the nanometer/sub-nanometer thickness regime. The film formation mechanism consists of the successive introduction of several precursors in the reaction chamber. The first precursor will react with the substrate in the reaction chamber. When the saturation of the substrate surface is achieved, the chamber is pumped down and purged of the remanent sub-products of the reaction by an inert gas. Then a second precursor is introduced in the chamber and reacts with the first one to create the first layer of the aimed film. After a new purge, the process can start over again, or a third precursor could be introduced to create more complex films. By repeating the complete sequence of one film layer deposition, the desired thickness is obtained. The ALD films produced at IEMN are used for solar cells, micro batteries, as insulating layer for MIM capacitors or gate layer for MOS devices, as passivation or adhesion layers. To achieve this, we use two different systems: a Beneq TFS200 system and a PICOSUN R200 system. Beneq TFS200 system can work in a thermal mode with a chamber heated up to 500°C, or in Plasma Enhanced ALD mode, with a 13.56 MHz capacitance plasma. We can process samples up to 200mm diameter and 5 mm thickness for the thermal chamber, 10 mm for the plasma chamber. Three liquid precursors are available: H2O, TMA and TiCl4, and four solid precursors: TaCl5, (tMe)MeCpPt(IV) trimethyl (methyl cyclopentadienyl) Platinum, Zr(Net2)4 Tetrakis (Diethylamino) Zirconium, (TDMAHf) Tertrakis (ethylmethylamino) Hafnium. Each canister of solid precursor can be heated up to 300°C. As process gases we have high purity Ammonia, Oxygen, Hydrogen and Argon. Argon or Nitrogen are both available as carrier and purge gas.
Picosun equipment is more dedicated for energy devices based on ALD’s lithium technology. It is only use by CSAM team. It can work in either a thermal mode or a plasma mode. Two different pretreatments of samples (O2 or H2) are available. It can work too with two different sources (Cold or Hot) depending of the material you want to deposit. With the cold source, we can deposit Alumina in three different ways: H2O, O2 or with ozone. With the hot source Lb2O5, MnO2 and LiPO4 can be deposit. Carrier and purge gas is argon. The chamber is able to hold 3inches wafers at a time and make deposition from1 to 100nm thickness. Plasma is produced with a 2.8GHz generator.
- Process control resources:
ESCA: The IEMN ESCA system is connected under UHV to the 2 III-V MBE reactors and to an introduction chamber allowing the analysis of any sample on demand. The core of the system is a Physical Electronics 5600 apparatus modified to be compatible with the 3-inch MBE sample holders. It is fitted with a fully motorized manipulator with 3 translations and 2 rotations. ESCA analysis is performed thanks to a 150 mm radius hemispherical analyzer. For XPS, the X-ray sources are either a Dual Mg/Zr anode or a monochromatic Al K one. This system is also equipped with a 5 keV Ar ion gun for depth profiling via Ar sputtering and with an 8 keV electron gun with a minimal spot size around 20 μm. UPS can be achieved thanks to a UV source producing either HeI (21.2 eV) or HeII (40.8 eV) UV photons. Finally, a LEED apparatus allows studying the sample surface crystallography. When used in XPS, the ultimate system energy resolution is 0.45 eV, as measured on the FWHM of the Ag 3d5/2 core level line.
This system is currently running at part time by a engineer.
Focus Ion Beam Microscope: FEI Strata DB 235
This microscope is composed of an electron column (SEM) and an ion column (FIB) and three internal micromanipulators Kleindiek. One external micromanipulator under optical microscope and 1 evaporator (for carbon deposition) are also available. SEM allows to observe sample and to localize the area of interest. FIB allows to deposit material or etch the sample. We can realize local deposition of platinum, tungsten and carbon assisted by ion or electron beam to protect sample surface or to make electrical connection. We can etch sample to realize TEM preparation, cross section or 3D reconstruction. Micromanipulators are used to transfer the TEM preparation from the sample to the TEM grid, to move object on the surface of the sample (nanowire), to realize electrical characterization, …
- SEM = 3nm
- STEM = 2nm (transmission image) – FIB = 10nm
Acceleration voltage: SEM = 200V à 30kV, FIB = 5 à 30kV, Current : FIB = 1pA à 20nA
Scanning electronic microscopy: ZEISS ULTRA 55 and ZEISS ULTRA 55VP
This resource included two SEM, chemical and crystallographic analysis. They are used to inspect IEMN fab process, as UV lithography, metal and dielectric deposition, etch for all application domain like nanostructure, BioMems, hyper frequency component…
Both SEM have common specifications:
- Resolution of 1 nm at 15 kV. (3 nm at 1 kV)
- Large sample holder 130 mm/ 130 mm.
- Secondary at backscattering electron detection.
The First SEM is a ZEISS ULTRA 55, bought in 2005, has a backscattering detector running at 1kV. The particular applications are characterizations of e beam lithography, nanostructure close to 5 nm … Moreover, it has a chemical analyze with EDS Quanta 200 / Flash 4010 from Bruker. The second SEM is a ZEISS SUPRA 55 VP, bought in 2009, has a low vacuum detector from nonconductive or hydrate sample. The particulars applications are characterization of thick layer of polymer, flexible wafer … Moreover, it has crystallography analyzes with EBSD Inca / Nordlys from oxford.
Atomic Force Microscope: Bruker EDGE
Bought in 2014, this equipment is used for measuring roughness or topographic edge at a nanometric scale. The resolution is about 0.1nm and the max maximum length is 100µm. Peak force tapping technology developed by BRUKER allows the measurements of sample with a very low damage of samples and of AFM tips. It is used by users or by an engineer.
- 3 mechanical profilometers (2 tencor and one bruker) for measuring heights of different materials)
- 6 optical or numeric microscopes for the observation of samples
- 1 optical profilometer BRUKER
- 1 probe station for verifying electrical characteristics during the process fabrication of devices.
- Integration Assembly Packaging resource
The I.A.P resource allows to thin and to polish a wide choice of materials (semiconductors, metals, ceramics, etc…) with a high precision or speed of execution following the need. These steps of lapping/polishing are used for example to prepare a substrate before manufacturing to reduce the surface defects, to thin devices after manufacturing, to planarize layers of interconnection (interlayer dielectric thin films :ILDs) or structures of isolation by shallow trench (shallow trench isolation STI technology). According to the application, the specifications of thicknesses and roughness of surface, it is possible to realize soft mechanical polishing (Logitech PM5) or fast thinning (Grinder G&N) as well as a chemical mechanical planarization (CMP Alpsitec E460). Furthermore, the association of the polishing machine to an automatic bonder (Logitech 1WBS1) allows very reproducible bondings and guarantees an optimal parallelism between the sample and the carrier. A system of megasonic cleaning (Polos Spin Meg-Pie) can be used to clean samples after these processes. All these machines are in free access for the users who received a training.
To provide electrical connections between components and their support, two micro-welding machines (JFP Microtechnic WB100 and K&S4526) allow to realize wire-bonding (wedge-bonding or ball-bonding). These connections are made in golden wires of diameter 18 um either 25 um or aluminum of diameter 25 um and are realized by application of a strength and/or ultrasounds and/or a heating, used eventually to facilitate the weld according to the chosen materials. Micro-welding machines are in free access for the users who received a training.
An equipment of flip-chip by pick-and-place (EQUIPEX LEAF) completes these possibilities with a high precision positioning of components on their support.
Within the Integration resource, two conventional ways to realize cuts are used: the mechanical cut by saw (dicing) as well as the manufacturing/cut by ablation laser in pulsed femtosecond or nanosecond mode.
The mechanical cut can be made thanks to a saw of presision (ADT7100) on a wafer until 5’’ of diameter. It is possible to cut the allowing materials: GaAs, Si, SiC, Quartz, Al2O3 based-materials, ceramic, glass, InP, GaN … up o 1,7mm of thickness. According to the used type of blade, the width of the line of cuti s between 50 um and 254 um.
The structuring by ablation laser also allows to realize cuts, drillings and manufacturing on a large number of materials (crystalline semiconductors, plastics, metals …). Two equipments Oxford-Lasers (multi-wavelength femtosecond laser and UV nanosecond laser) (EQUIPEX LEAF) allow advanced manufacturing. A selectivity between materials can be realized by an appropriate choice of the parameters.